Y4 - Curriculum

Reading - Years 3 and 4

Behaving and reflectingas a reader

Children will continue to develop a love of reading through hearing, sharing and discussing a broader and deeper range of high quality fiction and non-fiction books. 

This will include:

  • Participating in discussions about fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference/text books
  • Listening attentively to a longer and a wider range of texts
  • Explaining and discussing their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves.
  • Being willing to experiment with reading choices
  • Reading for a range of different purposes
  • Asking self-directed questions/ showing curiosity to deepen their understanding
  • Preparing readings for performance and showing understanding through volume, tone, intonation and action.

Retrieval skills

Children will develop their ability to explain their understanding of increasingly complex texts that they have read and had read to them. This will include:

  • Checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context 
  • Retelling orally a wider range of familiar stories including fairy tales, myths and legends
  • Asking questions to improve their understanding of a text
  • Identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these
  • Retrieving and recording information from fiction and non-fiction
  • Using contents pages and indexes to locate information

This could include:

  • Beginning to use some relevant textual reference/ quotations to support views 

Inferential skills

Children will become increasingly confident in predicting events and making inferences and begin to explain their ideas. This will include:

  • Predicting what might happen from details stated and implied.
  • Drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence

Purpose and organisation

Children will be familiar with a wide range of different text types and their particular organisational conventions and will begin to understand links between presentation, structure and meaning. This will include:

  • Showing increasing familiarity with the patterns and structures in a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends
  • Beginning to identify howstructure and presentation contribute to meaning
  • Recognising the conventions of organisation, structure and presentation of the different forms they read
  • Recognising some different forms of poetry (e.g. free verse; narrative poetry) 

Style and impact

Children will become increasingly confident in identifying how language choices contribute to meaning and will continue to expand their vocabulary and awareness of grammatical structures and literary language. This will include:

  • Using dictionaries to check the meaning of words they have read.
  • Extending their interest in the meaning and origin of words
  • Discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination
  • Identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning


Children will read accurately and at a speed that is sufficient for them to focus on understanding what they read rather than decoding individual words. This will include:

  • Applying their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology), both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet
  • Reading further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word. 

Authorial intent/context

Children will continue to develop awareness that writers have viewpoints and purposes and increasingly understand that texts have contexts that affect meaning

This could include:

  • Identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of texts such as the triumph of good over evilor use of magical devices in fairy stories and folk tales
  • Showing awareness that writers have different purposes

This could include:

  • Commenting on the effect that the reader’s or writer’s context has on the meaning of texts
  • Commenting on the writer’s viewpoint
  • Identifying the main purpose
  • Commenting on the effect on the reader

Statutory terminology for pupils: Y3: preposition, conjunction, word family, prefix, clause, subordinate clause, direct speech, consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter, inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’) Y4:  determiner, pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial

Writing Years 3 and 4

Behaving and reflecting as a writer (Plan, draft, edit)

In children’s research, planning, drafting and editing there is evidence of an increased awareness of and reflection on how to enhance the effectiveness of writing

This will include:

  • Development and use of a preferred style of planning for writing in a range of curricular contexts.
  • Development and use of a repertoire of forms and structures arising from shared/guided reading and drafting activities
  • Commenting on the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing, suggesting improvements and acting on suggestions about their own writing.
  • Increasingly effective proof reading for accuracy, meaning and impact and evidence of changes as a result
  • Ability to read their writing to others using appropriate intonation, tone and volume to convey meaning 

Purpose and audience (context)

Children’s planning and writing shows increasing awareness of purpose and audience. Word choice and structure begins to reflect this. 

This will include:

  • Showing knowledge and understanding of a range of writing forms, their features and when to apply them – for example – an explanation; a description; a narrative

This could include:

  • Beginning to establish and sustain a viewpoint
  • Increasing elaboration on information/events
  • Increasing clarity in terms of main purpose of writing
  • Increasing adaptation of style to get the attention of the reader 

Structure and organisation (textual)

Children explore and apply a range of different text structures and organisational devices to develop coherence and cohesion

This will include:

  • Organising paragraphs around a theme (clustering related points)
  • Creating settings, character and plots in narrative writing
  • Use of a range of narrative structures
  • Using a range of organisational devices such as headings and sub-headings
  • Using appropriate pronouns or nouns within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition

This could include:

  • Use of fitting openings and endings sometimes linked
  • Beginning to use some simple links between paragraphs
  • Beginning to sequence ideas or material logically 

Style including language choice, grammar and punctuation

Children begin to make conscious style choices that reflect a broadening understanding of text types-including those from individual and shared reading

This will include:

  • Using an increasingly variedvocabulary
  • Showing an increasing understanding of the differences between standard and non-standard English
  • Understanding and using some figurative language
  • Using more varied sentence structure including wider range of conjunctions to create sentences with more than one clause
  • Accurate use of pronouns in sentences
  • Expressing time, place and cause using conjunctions, adverbs or prepositions
  • Beginning to use some subordination
  • Use of the present perfect form of verbs
  • Increasingly accurate punctuation of direct speech
  • Using expanded noun phrases by adding modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases
  • Using commas after fronted adverbials
  • Accurate demarcation of straightforward sentences


Children draw on a range of strategies to spell as accurately as possible including – for example -phonic knowledge, morphology and etymology. 

This will include:

  • Spelling new words correctly
  • Using further prefixes and suffixes and understanding how to add them
  • Spelling further homophones
  • Spelling words that are often misspelt
  • Placing the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with both regular and irregular plurals
  • Using the first two or three letters in a word to check spelling in a dictionary
  • Writing from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words and punctuation taught so far


Children’s handwriting should be increasingly legible and consistent with joined handwriting as the norm and an ability to use it fast enough to keep pace with what they want to say.

This should include:

  • Use of diagonal and horizontal strokes to join letters
  • Joining of appropriate adjacent letters
  • Appropriate spacing of lines of writing
  • Parallel and equidistant downstrokes

Statutory Terminology for pupils – in addition to Y1 and 2: Year 3: preposition, conjunction, word family, prefix, clause, subordinate clause, direct speech, consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter, inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’), determiner. Year 4: pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial


Year 4 Number and Place Value

Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000

  • Link multiples of 25 to 50 and 100
  • Link understanding of the 3 times table to the 6 times table
  • Use number grids to spot patterns and relationships in multiples

Find 1000 more or less than a given number

  • Find 1000 more or less than a decimal number
  • Find 1000 more or less than any whole number including where a negative number is generated
  • Find 1000 more or less than any whole number over 1000
  • Find 1000 more than a multiple of 10

Count backwards through zero to include negative numbers

  • Identify negative numbers on a number line in relation to zero
  • Identify negative numbers in context e.g. thermometer floors in a lift 

Recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)

  • Recognise the multiplicative value in place value e.g. 1000 is 100 times as big as 10
  • Use 4 digit numbers and apply partitioning related to place value e.g. 1572= 1000+500+70+2

Order and compare numbers beyond 1000

  • Compare and order 4 digit numbers and position them on a number line
  • Compare and order numbers beyond 1000 using< > and =

Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations

  • Represent numbers using structured apparatus e.g. place value counters, counting stick
  • Apply estimation strategies from Yr3 to larger numbers 

Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000

  • Round to the nearest 1000 any number up to and including 4 digit numbers
  • Round to the nearest 100 any number up to and including 4 digit numbers
  • Round to the nearest 10 any number up to and including 4 digit numbers
  • Understand the rules of rounding up and down

Solve number and practical problems with increasingly large positive numbers

Read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value

  • Identify patterns and repeating digits/letters
  • Compare Roman system with the modern system (similarities/differences/ the use of zero)
  • Identify Roman numerals in history and the modern world e.g. news/books 

Year 4 Number – Addition and Subtraction

Add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate

  • Use knowledge of decomposition to subtract accurately including on a calculation mat
  • Use expanded written methods to add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits
  • Use formal written methods and link to structured apparatus e.g. Numicon, place value counters, base 10 

Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation

  • Use knowledge of rounding to estimate answers to a calculation
  • Consolidate estimation and the inverse from Year 3

Solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why

Year 4 Multiplication and Division

Recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12

  • Use multiplication and division facts in calculations and in context
  • Through doubling and halving be able to connect the 3,6, and 12 times tables

Use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers

  • Practise mental methods and extend this to three digit numbers to derive facts (600 divided by 3 =200 can be derived from 2x3=60)
  • Use facts already known to derive new multiplication facts e.g. If I know 10 x 6 = 60 then 12x6 = 60 + (2x6)
  • Discuss the effects of multiplying and dividing by 0 and 1 and model with concrete objects

Recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations

  • Apply commutativity in mental calculations e.g. 4x12x5=4x5x12=20x12=240
  • Use factor pairs to calculate e.g. to multiply by 20, multiply the number by 2 and then 10 or 5 and then 4
  • Find factors of numbers
  • Understand the term factors and the difference between a factor and a multiple

Multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout

  • Compare the grid method to the short formal method identifying similarities and differences
  • To use informal written methods to consolidate place value and understanding when multiplying e.g. grid, sectioned array

Solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects

  • Write statements about the equality of expressions (use the distributive law 39x7=30x7+9x7 and the associative law (2x3)x4=2x(3x4))
  • Solve correspondence questions such as 3 cakes shared equally between 10 children
  • Use multiplication tables to apply to a scaling context e.g.4 times as high, 8 times as short

Year 4 Fractions (including decimals)

Recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions

  • Use factors and multiples to recognise equivalent fractions and simplify where appropriate
  • Consolidate equivalent fractions from year 3

Count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten

  • Connect hundredths and tenths to place value and decimal measure
  • Count using simple fractions and decimals backwards e.g. in halves, quarters, tenths, hundredths
  • Count using simple fractions and decimals forwards e.g. in halves,  tenths, quarters, hundredths
  • Make the link and recognise that 0.3 is equivalent to 30/100

Solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number

  • Understand relationship between non-unit fractions & multiplication and division of quantities, with particular emphasis on 100ths & 10ths
  • Find non-unit fractions using pictorial representations and objects

Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator

  • Subtract fractions (with the same denominator) that go beyond a whole, using objects to support understanding
  • Addfractions (with the same denominator) that are > 1, using objects to support understanding

Recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths

  • Understand the place value of each digit when writing hundredths and tenths

Recognise and write decimal equivalents to ¼, ½, ¾

Link 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 to parts of 100 e.g. using 100 grid as 1 or the Numicon enlarged 1 (recognising the base board as one whole)

Find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths

  • Divide a number by 100 and understand how the digits should shift
  • Divide a number by 10 and understand how the digits should shift
  • Divide a number by 10 and understand how the quantity changes to 10 times as small 

Round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number

  • Apply the rules of rounding to numbers with 1 decimal place

Compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places

  • Compare and order decimal numbers using< > = and number lines
  • Understand how 0 affects value of a number to 2 dp e.g.36.05 < 36.5 including in meaningful contexts
  • Identify numbers up to two decimal places in different contexts e.g. money, length

Solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places

Year 4    Measurement

Convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]

  • Use multiplication and division to convert between different units of measure
  • Build on place value and decimal numbers to record metric measures

Measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres

  • Understand perimeter can be expressed algebraically as 2(a+b) where a and b are the dimensions in the same unit
  • Measure and calculate perimeter in metres. Use practical opportunitiesto measure and calculate perimeter e.g. our classroom, playground etc
  • Measure and calculate perimeter in centimetres. Use practical opportunitiesto measure and calculate perimeter e.g. our desk, paving stones etc.

Find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares

  • Use practical opportunities to explore area
  • Relate area to array patterns
  • Understand what the term area means and how it is different to perimeter

Estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence

  • Choose the appropriate apparatus when calculating e.g. using measuring tools appropriate to what is being measured
  • Develop effective strategies for estimating measures e.g. using non-standard measures – cups, parts of the body etc

Read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks

  • Understand the links between 12 and 24 hour clocks

Solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days

Year 4   Geometry

Compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes

  • Compare lengths and angles to decide if a polygon is regular or irregular
  • Classify different quadrilaterals e.g. parallelogram, rhombus, trapezium, rectangle, square
  • Classify different triangles e.g. isosceles, equilateral and scalene 

Identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size

  • Understand the term obtuse
  • Understand the term acute

Identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations

  • Identify more than one line of symmetry in 2D shapes
  • Identify one line of symmetry in 2D shapes

Complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry

  • Draw symmetric patterns using a variety of media to become familiar with different orientations of lines of symmetry
  • Recognise lines of symmetry in a variety of diagrams, including where the line of symmetry does not dissect the original shape

Describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant

  • Read co-ordinates in the 1st quadrant
  • Understand co-ordinates i.e. what they are and what they show

Describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down

  • Move objects between positions and describe the movements e.g. using pieces on a chessboard
  • Physically move between positions and describe the movements made

Plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon

  • Write and plot pairs of co-ordinates in the first quadrant
  • Draw a pair of axis in one quadrant with equal scales and integer labels

Year 4   Statistics

Interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs

  • Understand and use a greater range of scales in representations e.g. time graphs for a cycle race
  • Begin to relate the graphical representation of data to recording change over time
  • e.g. in contexts such as temperature change
  • Understand the term continuous data and contexts in which it is meaningful e.g. height. Compare continuous data to discrete data e.g. shoe size 

Solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs 


Living things and their habitats

  • recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
  • explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment
  • recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.

Animals, including humans

  • describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
  • construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey

States of matter

  • compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)
  • identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature.


  • identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear
  • find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it
  • recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.


  • identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors

Art and Design KS2

  • to create sketch books to record their observations and use them to review and revisit ideas
  • to improve their mastery of art and design techniques, including drawing, painting and sculpture with a range of materials
  • find out about great artists, architects and designers in history

Computing KS2

  • design, write and debug programs that accomplish specific goals, including controlling or simulating physical systems; solve problems by decomposing them into smaller parts
  • use sequence, selection, and repetition in programs; work with variables and various forms of input and output
  • use logical reasoning to explain how some simple algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms and programs
  • understand computer networks including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the world wide web; and the opportunities they offer for communication and collaboration
  • use search technologies effectively, appreciate how results are selected and ranked, and be discerning in evaluating digital content
  • select, use and combine a variety of software (including internet services) on a range of digital devices to design and create a range of programs, systems and content that accomplish given goals, including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting data and information
  • use technology safely, respectfully and responsibly; recognise acceptable/unacceptable behaviour; identify a range of ways to report concerns about content and contact.

Design and Technology KS2


  • use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups
  • generate, develop, model and communicate their ideas through discussion, annotated sketches, cross-sectional and exploded diagrams, prototypes, pattern pieces and computer-aided design


  • select from and use a wider range of tools and equipment to perform practical tasks [for example, cutting, shaping, joining and finishing], accurately
  • select from and use a wider range of materials and components, including construction materials, textiles and ingredients, according to their functional properties and aesthetic qualities


  • investigate and analyse a range of existing products
  • evaluate their ideas and products against their own design criteria and consider the views of others to improve their work
  • understand how key events and individuals in design and technology have helped shape the world

Technical knowledge

  • apply their understanding of how to strengthen, stiffen and reinforce more complex structures
  • understand and use mechanical systems in their products [for example, gears, pulleys, cams, levers and linkages]
  • understand and use electrical systems in their products [for example, series circuits incorporating switches, bulbs, buzzers and motors]
  • apply their understanding of computing to program, monitor and control their products

Cooking and nutritionKS2

  • understand and apply the principles of a healthy and varied diet
  • prepare and cook a variety of predominantly savoury dishes using a range of cooking techniques
  • understand seasonality, and know where and how a variety of ingredients are grown, reared, caught and processed

Geography KS2

Locational knowledge

  • locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities
  • name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time
  • identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones 

Place knowledge

  • understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region within North or South America

Human and physical geography

describe and understand key aspects of:

  • physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
  • human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water

Geographical skills and fieldwork

  • use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied
  • use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and key to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world
  • use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.

History KS2

  • changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age
  • the Roman Empire and its impact on Britain
  • Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots
  • the Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor
  • a local history study
  • a study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066
  • the achievements of the earliest civilizations
  • Ancient Greece – a study of Greek life and achievements and their influence on the western world
  • a non-European society that provides contrasts with British history


  • listen attentively to spoken language and show understanding by joining in and responding
  • explore the patterns and sounds of language through songs and rhymes and link the spelling, sound and meaning of words
  • engage in conversations; ask and answer questions; express opinions and respond to those of others
  • speak in sentences, using familiar vocabulary, phrases and basic language structures
  • develop accurate pronunciation and intonation so that others understand when they are reading aloud or using familiar words and phrases
  • present ideas and information orally to a range of audiences
  • read carefully and show understanding of words, phrases and simple writing
  • appreciate stories, songs, poems and rhymes in the language
  • broaden their vocabulary and develop their ability to understand new words that are introduced into familiar written material, including through using a dictionary
  • write phrases from memory, and adapt these to create new sentences, to express ideas clearly
  • describe people, places, things and actions orally and in writing
  • understand basic grammar appropriate to the language being studied


  • play and perform in solo and ensemble contexts, using their voices and playing musical instruments with increasing accuracy, fluency, control and expression
  • improvise and compose music for a range of purposes using the inter-related dimensions of music
  • listen with attention to detail and recall sounds with increasing aural memory
  • use and understand staff and other musical notations
  • appreciate and understand a wide range of high-quality live and recorded music drawn from different traditions and from great composers and musicians
  • develop an understanding of the history of music

Physical Education

  • use running, jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination
  • play competitive games, modified where appropriate and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending
  • develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance
  • perform dances using a range of movement patterns
  • take part in outdoor and adventurous activity challenges both individually and within a team
  • compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best

Swimming and water safety

  • swim competently, confidently and proficiently over a distance of at least 25 metres
  • use a range of strokes effectively
  • perform safe self-rescue in different water-based situations


We follow the West Sussex guidelines to teach


PSHCE (Personal, Social, Health, Citizenship Education) KS2

  • Pupils to have a good understanding of British values
  • We promote RRR Rights, Respecting School agenda
  • Healthy Schools agenda
  • Global citizenship

The section of the curriculum is flexible depending on the needs of the pupils

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