KS2 Reading - Comprehension

Year Three

Year Four

Year Five

Year Six

Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read:

· Listen to and discuss a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks (whole books and extracts)

· Use dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read

· Increase their familiarity with a wide rangeof books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retell some of these orally (recognise themes, such as good over evil)

· Prepare poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform,show understanding through intonation,tone, volume and action (use drama for performance)

Understand what they read, in books they can read independently:

· Check that the text makes sense to them, discuss their understandingand explain the meaning of words in context

· Ask questionsto improve their understanding of a text

· Predict what might happen from details stated and implied

· Retrieveand record information from non-fiction

· Participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, take turns and listen to what others say (select own choice of books from the school and local library).

Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read:

· Read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes

· Identify themes and conventions in a wide range of books

· Discuss words and phrases that capture the reader’s interestand imagination

· Recognise some different forms of poetry(e.g.free verse, narrative poetry) (use drama for performance)

Understand what they read, in books they can read independently:

· Draw inferences such as infer characters' feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justify inferences with evidence (all should take part in discussions)

· Identify main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarise these (know how to locate information independently)

· Identify how language,structure,and presentation contribute to meaning (understand different conventions of different types of writing e.g. greetings in letters).

Maintain positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read:

· Continue to read (both individually and as a whole class) and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks

· Read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes (recognise themes in what they read e.g. heroism)

· Recommend books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices (compare characters and discuss viewpoints of characters and authors)

· Learn a wider range of poetry by heart (be taught technical terms e.g. simile, analogy, style, effect)

Understand what they read:

· Check that the book makes sense to them, discuss their understanding and explore the meaning of words in context (know how to locate information)

· Ask questions to improve their understanding

· Predict what might happen from details stated and implied

· Summarise the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph

· Identify key details that support the main ideas

· Distinguish between statements of fact and opinion

· Retrieve,record and present information from non-fiction

· Participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously

Maintain positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read:

· Make comparisons within and across books

· Increase their familiarity with a wide rangeof books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions

· Identifyand discuss themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing

· Prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform,show understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience

Understand what they read:

· Draw inferences such as infercharacters' feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justify inferences with evidence (compare characters, settings and themes)

· Identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning

· Discuss and evaluate how authors’ use language,including figurative language, and consider the impact on the reader

· Explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read,including through formal presentations and debates, maintain a focus on the topic and use notes where necessary

· Provide reasoned justifications for their views (be given feedback on the quality of their explanations and contributions).

KS2 Writing - Handwriting

Year Three

Year Four

Year Five

Year Six

Pupils should be taught to:

· Use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined (in independent writing).

· Increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting, e.g.by ensuring that the down strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch (be able to increase the fluency with which pupils are able to write down what they say).

Pupils should be taught to:

· write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by:

· choose which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding, as part of their personal style, whether or not to join specific letters (be given time to practise)

· choose the writing implement that is best suited for a task (e.g. quick notes, letters) (be clear about the standard of handwriting for a particular task)

Pupils should be fluent in handwriting but refer to previous year group objectives if necessary.

KS2 Writing –Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation

Year Three

Year Four

Year Five

Year Six

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Extend the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, e.g. When, if, because, although

· Choose nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list (learn some of the differences between standard and non-standard English).

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use and punctuate direct speech

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (be able to apply to examples of real language).

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause

· Use conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause

· Use fronted adverbials

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list (learn some of the differences between standard and non-standard English).

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use commas after fronted adverbials

· Indicate possession by using the possessive apostrophe with singular and plural nouns

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (be able to apply to examples of real language).

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Recognise vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms

· Use expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely

· Use relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list.

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing

· Use hyphens to avoid ambiguity

· Use a colon to introduce a list

· Use brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

· Punctuate bullet points consistently

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (continue to add to their knowledge of linguistic terms).

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Use modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility

· Use passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list.

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

· Use semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between main clauses

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (continue to add to their knowledge of linguistic terms).

Attached List for Grammar and Terminology to be taught

WORD

SENTENCE

TEXT

PUNCTUATION

TERMINOLOGY FOR PUPILS

3

Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes, such as

super–,anti–,auto–

Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel(e.g. a rock, an open box)

Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning (e.g. solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble)

Expressing time, place and

cause using conjunctions (e.g. when, before, after, while, so, because),adverbs (e.g. then, next, soon, therefore), or prepositions (e.g. before, after, during, in, because of)

Introduction to paragraphs as

a way to group related material

Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation

Use of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past (e.g. He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play)

Introduction to inverted

commas to punctuate direct speech

adverb, preposition

conjunction

word family, prefix

clause, subordinate clause direct speech

consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter

inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’)

4

The grammatical difference

between plural and

possessive -s

Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms (e.g. we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done)

Noun phrases expanded by

the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair)

Fronted adverbials

(e.g. Later that day, I heard the bad news.)

Use of paragraphs to

organise ideas around a theme

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition

Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech e.g. a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas (e.g. The conductor shouted, “Sit down!”)

Apostrophes to mark singular and plural possession (e.g. the girl’s name, the girls’ names)

Use of commas after fronted adverbials

determiner

pronoun, possessive pronoun,

adverbial

WORD

SENTENCE

TEXT

PUNCTUATION

TERMINOLOGY FOR PUPILS

5

Converting nouns or

adjectives into verbs using suffixes (e.g.–ate;–ise;– ify)

Verb prefixes (e.g.dis–,

de–,mis–,over– and re–)

Relative clauses beginning

with who, which, where, when, whose, that, or an omitted relative pronoun

Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs (e.g. perhaps, surely) or modal verbs (e.g. might, should, will, must)

Devices to build cohesion

within a paragraph (e.g. then,

after that, this, firstly)

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time (e.g. later),place

(e.g. nearby) and number

(e.g. secondly)

Brackets, dashes or commas

to indicate parenthesis

Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity

modal verb, relative pronoun

relative clause

parenthesis ,bracket, dash cohesion, ambiguity

6

The difference between

vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing(e.g. find out– discover; ask for – request; go in– enter)

How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms (e.g. big, large, little).

Use of the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence (e.g. I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken [by me]).

The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing (such as the use of question tags, e.g. He’s your friend, isn’t he?, or the use of subjunctive forms such as If I were or Were they to come in some very formal writing and speech)

Linking ideas across

paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections (e.g. the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence),and ellipsis

Layout devices, such as headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text

Use of the semi-colon, colon

and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses (e.g. It’s raining; I’m fed up)

Use of the colon to introduce a list

Punctuation of bullet points to list information

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity(e.g. man eating shark versus man- eating shark, or recover versus re-cover)

subject, object

active, passive synonym, antonym

ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi- colon, bullet points

Grammar Glossary for Parents

Please find below a glossary of the terminology that children are expected to know by the end of Year 6.

As you can see it does get rather technical, so please do not worry about coming to ask for further clarification if required. 

Active Voice

When the subject of the sentence is doing something the verb is active.

e.g. the police caught the thief

 

Adjective

A word that describes a noun

e.g. the cat is very happy

 

Adverb

A word that describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb

e.g. the cat is extremely small / the cat moved stealthily

 

Ambiguity
Ambiguity means to have more than one meaning – e.g. "I know a man with a dog who has fleas" it is unclear - ambiguous - whether it is the man or the dog who has fleas. It is the syntax not the meaning of the words which is unclear.

 

Antonym

A word opposite in meaning to another, e.g. hot/cold, fast/slow

 

Bracket

Brackets are used to enclose an aside or to add information or ideas which are not essential. You should be able to remove the brackets and their contents and be left with a sentence which makes sense e.g. The shoes (made of patent leather) were all scuffed and dirty.

 

Bullet Points
Capitalise the start of every bullet point

Be consistent, information next to bullet points should either be written in full sentences or in fragments but not a mixture of both.

 

Clause

A clause is a building block for sentences. It helps to develop and expand the sentence as necessary.A clause can be a sentence in its own right (main clause), but can also be just a part of the sentence.

 

Cohesion

Cohesion is the term used to describe the grammatical means by which sentences and paragraphed are linked and relationships between them established. In English, the principal means of establishing cohesion are through the use of pronouns, determiners and conjunctions.

 

Colon

The colon has two main uses. 

1)       To introduce an idea that is an explanation or continuation of the one that comes before the colon, e.g. Africa is facing a terrifying problem: perpetual drought. The colon can be considered as a gateway inviting the reader to go on.

2)       The second main use of the colon is to introduce a list. You need to take care; many people assume that a colon always precedes a list. This is not the case. Again it is important to remember that the clause that precedes the colon must make complete sense on its own. 
E.g. The potion contained some exotic ingredients: snails' eyes, bats' tongues and garlic.

 

Conditional tense

What could/would happen

 

Conjunction/Connective

A word that joins a group of words   e.g. and / or

 

Consonant

The letters: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z

 

Dash

The single dash is normally a feature of informal English and is used, especially in narrative, to create suspense or to indicate that what follows is an afterthought or something to be emphasised.

e.g. There is was again, that creak on the staircase. Pamela sat upright in
bed, eyes wide open in the darkness. Just Marmalade her cat, she
thought – or was it?

 

Definite article

The

 

Indefinite article

A or an

 

Demonstrative Adjective

This, that, these, those

 

Determiner

A determiner is used to modify a noun. It indicates reference to something specific or something of a particular type. There are different types of determiners: articles (a, an, the), demonstratives (this, that, these and those), possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their, mine, his, hers, yours, ours) and quantifiers (some, any, few, little, more, much, many, each, every, both, all, enough, half, little, whole, less etc).

 

Direct Speech

Direct speech where the exact words spoken are put into speech marks.

 

Ellipses

An ellipsis (plural: ellipses) is a punctuation mark consisting of three dots. Ellipses can express hesitation, changes of mood, suspense, or thoughts trailing off. Writers also use ellipses to indicate a pause.

 

Fronted Adverbial

A fronted adverbial goes at the beginning of a sentence. It describes the verb in the sentence. It describes where, when or how. E.g As soon as he could, Tom jumped off the train. 

 

Future tense

What will happen in the future

 

Hyphen

Hyphens are used to make new words out of two existing words or parts of words.

It’s worth noting that, nowadays, the hyphens in many words are just missed out. Head-ache is now headache, and city-centre is now city centre.

 

Infinitive

The basic form of the verb, as it is found in the dictionary (nothing has been added or taken away).

e.g. to drink / to sleep

 

Imperative verb

A bossy verb, used in instructions/directions

e.g. Take that road.

 

Inverted commas

Inverted commas can be single - ‘x’ - or double - ‘’x‘’. 

They are also known as quotation marks, speech marks, or quote marks.

 

Irregular verb

Verbs that don’t follow a set pattern of rules.

e.g. take becomes took rather than ‘taked’

 

Main clause

A sentence that functions independently

e.g. I’ll feed the dog.

 

Modal verb

Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as possibility, intention, obligation and necessity.

CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, DARE and NEED are some examples.

 

Noun

A naming word (person, place or thing)

e.g. giraffe / telephone

 

Object
The subject of a sentence‏‎ does something to an object. The object is the thing or person which is affected by the subject and the verb‏‎. E.g. Patricia ate the cake.

The subject of this sentence is Patricia. She is the 'star actor'. The verb is ate and this tells us what she does. The object of the sentence is the cake.

 

Parenthesis

Parenthesis is the addition of extra information to an already formed sentence. A parenthesis can be separated from the sentence with dashes, commas or brackets, and these are known as parentheses.

When the parenthesis is removed from the sentence, it should still be grammatically correct. So, to make sure that you have included a parenthesis correctly, reread the sentence to see if it makes sense without it. If it does, then you have successfully added a parenthesis.

 

Passive Voice

When the object of the sentence is having something done to it, the verb is passive.

e.g. the thief was caught by the police

 

Past tense

Says what happened in the past

 

Plural

More than one thing

 

Pronoun

Pronouns are short words like 'it', 'she', 'he', 'you', 'we', 'they', 'us', 'them'. They are used instead of names.

 

Personal pronoun

Refers to people

e.g. I / you / he / she / we / you / they

 

Possessive adjective

Indicates possession

e.g. mine / yours / his

 

Possessive pronoun

Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs are the possessivepronouns used to substitute a noun and to show possession or ownership.

 

Prefix

Prefixes are groups of letters that can be placed before a word to modify its meaning.

e.g: impossible (the prefix im- modifies the meaning to produce a negative sense)

 

Preposition

A word that gives information, such as time, location or direction

E.g on, at, between

 

Present tense

What is happening now

 

Pronoun

A word that replaces a noun

e.g he / she / it                                                        

 

Reflexive pronoun

Myself / yourself / himself

 

Relative clause

An important type of subordinate clause is the RELATIVE CLAUSE. Here are some examples:

The man [who lives beside us] is ill
The video [which you recommended] was terrific

Relative clauses are generally introduced by a relative pronoun, such as who, or which.

 

Relative pronoun

Relative pronouns, such as That, Who, Which, Whose and Whom can be used to introduce clauses in sentences:

The woman who interviewed me was very friendly.

I can't stand dogs that bark loudly.

 

Semi-colon
The semicolon (;) has only one major use. It is used to join two complete sentences into a single written sentence when all of the following conditions are met:

(1) The two sentences are felt to be too closely related to be separated by a full stop;

(2) There is no connecting word which would require a comma, such as and or but;

(3) The special conditions requiring a colon are absent.

 

Singular

One thing

 

Subject

The person doing the action

e.g. the monkey eats banana

 

Subordinate clause

A part of the sentence that is dependent upon another part

e.g. I’ll feed the dog [main clause] when he barks [subordinate clause]!

 

Synonym

Synonyms are words with the same or nearly the same meaning as another word in the language. E.g. pupil and student.

 

Verb

An action word

 

Vowel

The letters: a, e, i, o, u

 

Word family

Groups of words that follow the same spelling pattern or root word.

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