KS2 Writing –Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation

Year Three

Year Four

Year Five

Year Six

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Extend the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, e.g. When, if, because, although

· Choose nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list (learn some of the differences between standard and non-standard English).

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use and punctuate direct speech

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (be able to apply to examples of real language).

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause

· Use conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause

· Use fronted adverbials

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list (learn some of the differences between standard and non-standard English).

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use commas after fronted adverbials

· Indicate possession by using the possessive apostrophe with singular and plural nouns

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (be able to apply to examples of real language).

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Recognise vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms

· Use expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely

· Use relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list.

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing

· Use hyphens to avoid ambiguity

· Use a colon to introduce a list

· Use brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

· Punctuate bullet points consistently

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (continue to add to their knowledge of linguistic terms).

Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in attached list:

· Use modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility

· Use passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence

· Learn the grammar and terminology identified in attached list.

Indicate grammatical and other features:

· Use brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

· Use semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between main clauses

· Use the grammar terminology identified for specific year groups appropriately when discussing their writing and reading (continue to add to their knowledge of linguistic terms).

Attached List for Grammar and Terminology to be taught

WORD

SENTENCE

TEXT

PUNCTUATION

TERMINOLOGY FOR PUPILS

3

Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes, such as

super–,anti–,auto–

Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel(e.g. a rock, an open box)

Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning (e.g. solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble)

Expressing time, place and

cause using conjunctions (e.g. when, before, after, while, so, because),adverbs (e.g. then, next, soon, therefore), or prepositions (e.g. before, after, during, in, because of)

Introduction to paragraphs as

a way to group related material

Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation

Use of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past (e.g. He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play)

Introduction to inverted

commas to punctuate direct speech

adverb, preposition

conjunction

word family, prefix

clause, subordinate clause direct speech

consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter

inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’)

4

The grammatical difference

between plural and

possessive -s

Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms (e.g. we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done)

Noun phrases expanded by

the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair)

Fronted adverbials

(e.g. Later that day, I heard the bad news.)

Use of paragraphs to

organise ideas around a theme

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition

Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech e.g. a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas (e.g. The conductor shouted, “Sit down!”)

Apostrophes to mark singular and plural possession (e.g. the girl’s name, the girls’ names)

Use of commas after fronted adverbials

determiner

pronoun, possessive pronoun,

adverbial

WORD

SENTENCE

TEXT

PUNCTUATION

TERMINOLOGY FOR PUPILS

5

Converting nouns or

adjectives into verbs using suffixes (e.g.–ate;–ise;– ify)

Verb prefixes (e.g.dis–,

de–,mis–,over– and re–)

Relative clauses beginning

with who, which, where, when, whose, that, or an omitted relative pronoun

Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs (e.g. perhaps, surely) or modal verbs (e.g. might, should, will, must)

Devices to build cohesion

within a paragraph (e.g. then,

after that, this, firstly)

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time (e.g. later),place

(e.g. nearby) and number

(e.g. secondly)

Brackets, dashes or commas

to indicate parenthesis

Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity

modal verb, relative pronoun

relative clause

parenthesis ,bracket, dash cohesion, ambiguity

6

The difference between

vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing(e.g. find out– discover; ask for – request; go in– enter)

How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms (e.g. big, large, little).

Use of the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence (e.g. I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken [by me]).

The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing (such as the use of question tags, e.g. He’s your friend, isn’t he?, or the use of subjunctive forms such as If I were or Were they to come in some very formal writing and speech)

Linking ideas across

paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections (e.g. the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence),and ellipsis

Layout devices, such as headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text

Use of the semi-colon, colon

and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses (e.g. It’s raining; I’m fed up)

Use of the colon to introduce a list

Punctuation of bullet points to list information

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity(e.g. man eating shark versus man- eating shark, or recover versus re-cover)

subject, object

active, passive synonym, antonym

ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi- colon, bullet points

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